Examples of non-essential elements (enclosed by commas): 11. Use commas whenever necessary to avoid confusion or misreading. Common introductory sentences that should be followed by a comma are participle and infinitive phrases, absolute phrases, insignificant appositive sentences, and long prepositional sentences (more than four words). 9. Use commas to put all geographical names, elements in dates (except month and day), addresses (except house number and name) and title in names. However, do not put a comma after the main sentence if it is followed by a dependent sentence (child) (except in cases of extreme contrast). One. Common starting words for introductory sentences that should be followed by a comma are after, though, because, because, if, since, when, during. If you answer yes to these questions, the adjectives are coordinated and must be separated by a comma. Here are some examples of adjectives of coordinates and non-coordinates: This presentation also discusses methods to avoid a common comma error: comma splicing. The twenty-six slides included here are intended to assist the presenter in an interactive presentation of the elements of comma use.
This presentation is ideal for starting a composition course, abandoning a writing project, or as a refresher presentation for grammatical use. 8. Use commas to put sentences at the end of the sentence that refer to the beginning or middle of the sentence. Such sentences are free modifiers that can be placed anywhere in the sentence without causing confusion. (If the location of the modifier is confusing, it is not « free » and should remain « linked » to the word « linked, » let it change.) 7. Use a comma at the end of a sentence to separate contrasting coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or offset. 10. Use a comma to toggle between the main speech and a quote. Questions and exclamations are usually shorter than other sentences.
While there are no hard and fast rules for the length of sentences, it`s a good idea to prevent them from becoming run-on phrases. If you don`t limit the length, you risk confusing your audience. If a sentence you`ve written becomes too long (which is probably the case if there are a lot of other punctuation marks in the sentence or a lot of information without punctuation), break it down into smaller units of idea and insert dots for each: 5. Use commas to separate three or more words, sentences, or clauses written in a row. 3. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to define clauses, sentences, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use a front comma to indicate the beginning of the pause and a comma at the end to indicate the end of the pause. 2. Use commas after introductory sentences (a), (b) sentences, or (c) words that precede the main sentence.
c. Common introductory words that should be followed by a comma are yes, but good. This presentation is designed to familiarize you or your students with the rules for using commas, including: 4. Do not use commas to highlight essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses that begin with it (relative clauses). That clauses after names are always essential. That the sentences that follow a verb that expresses mental action are always essential. Below is a quick guide to getting started with commas. This resource also includes sections with more detailed rules and examples.
If you answer « yes » to one or more of these questions, the item in question is unimportant and must be surrounded by commas. Here are some examples of sentences with non-essential elements: 6. Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Be careful never to add an extra comma between the last adjective and the noun itself, or to use commas with adjectives without coordinates. 13. Do not put a comma between the two verbs or verbs in a compound predicate. The comma is a valuable and useful punctuation tool because it separates the structural elements of sentences into manageable segments. The rules listed here are those of traditional textbooks; However, in some rhetorical contexts and for specific purposes, these rules may be broken. 1. Use commas to separate independent sentences when joined by one of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, again, if, again.
(If you use only the month and year, no comma is required after the month or year: « Average temperatures for July 1998 are the highest since records began for that month. ») Finally, commas are used in the American style of writing calendar dates and before a series of three digits in longer numbers (excluding years and decimals): 14. Do not put a comma between the two names, noun phrases, or noun clauses in a subject or compound object. Media file: Conquer the comma PowerPoint presentation Coordinate adjectives are adjectives with the same status (« coordinates ») in the noun description; No adjective is subordinate to the other. You can decide if two adjectives are coordinated in a row by asking the following questions: Word: I appreciate your hard work.